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007 MAGAZINE Collectors Guide to
James Bond UK PAN Paperbacks
WRITTEN & COMPILED BY KEVIN HARPER

Part Two: The Raymond Hawkey covers

On March 25, 1963 James Bond author Ian Fleming was invited to a lunch at London's White Tower restaurant on Percy Street in Bloomsbury, by Daily Express entertainment columnist Peter Evans. Also present were fellow author Len Deighton and a 33-year-old graphic designer named Raymond Hawkey. The half-page account of the historic meeting between the two authors appeared in the newspaper two days later. Ian Fleming had just returned from Jamaica where he had completed his penultimate James Bond novel YOU ONLY LIVE TWICE, and Raymond Hawkey (who was an art college friend of Deighton) had designed the stylish black & white cover for Deighton's debut novel The Ipcress File, first published in November 1962. Hawkey was then working at the Daily Express and had also provided graphic panels to accompany the newspaper's serialization of GOLDFINGER in 1959, RISICO (re-titled The Double-Take) in 1960, and THUNDERBALL in 1961. Hawkey later provided a similar page header for YOU ONLY LIVE TWICE, when the Daily Express serialized the novel in the fortnight before its hardback publication on March 16, 1964.

Len Deighton, Ian Fleming & Raymond Hawkey | Raymond Hawkey Daily Express graphic panels

ABOVE: (top left) March 25, 1963 Len Deighton, Ian Fleming and Raymond Hawkey meet for the first time at London's White Tower restaurant (top right) Fleming and Deighton pose at Purdey & Sons gunsmiths shop in South Audley Street - this photograph accompanied the March 27, 1963 Daily Express half-page article ‘Pistols for two when Ian Fleming meets his latest rival’, which recounted the historic meeting. (bottom) Raymond Hawkey's graphic panels which accompanied the Daily Express serialization of GOLDFINGER in March 1959, The Double-Take (RISICO) April 1960 [co-designed by Michael Rand], and THUNDERBALL in March 1961. (below) Raymond Hawkey's graphic panel for the Daily Express serialization of YOU ONLY LIVE TWICE in February/March 1964 which featured illustrations by Andrew Robb.

YOU ONLY LIVE TWICE graphic panel from Daily Express serialisation 1964

With the release of the first James Bond film Dr. No in October 1962 there was naturally a renewed interest in the Ian Fleming novels, and PAN Books issued a paperback edition of DR. NO with a film tie-in cover which proved to be their biggest seller that year. The popularity of simple contemporary graphic designs pioneered by Raymond Hawkey prompted PAN Books to reissue the Bond novels again to coincide with the first paperback publication of THUNDERBALL in May 1963. Hawkey was the natural choice to bring James Bond up-to-date, which was in stark contrast to the garish painted covers by Rex Archer, Sam Peffer and Pat Owen in the late 1950s. It was Dr. No's co-producer Harry Saltzman who was instrumental in getting Hawkey the prize job of redesigning the James Bond paperback covers. Saltzman had invited Len Deighton to Pinewood Studios in October 1962 just before the publication of The Ipcress File and the release of Dr. No, and over lunch told the author that he wanted to purchase the film rights. The stark contemporary design of the dust jacket for The Ipcress File made a strong impression on Saltzman and he persuaded Aubrey Forshaw, the chairman of PAN Books, to commission Raymond Hawkey to redesign the James Bond paperbacks.

The Ipcress File (1962), Horse Under Water (1963) and Funeral In Berlin (1964) dustjackets designed by Raymond Hawkey

ABOVE: (L-R) Raymond Hawkey designed the dust jackets for the hardback editions of Len Deighton's The Ipcress File (1962), Horse Under Water (1963) and Funeral In Berlin (1964), all published by Hodder & Stoughton. The first and third novels in the series were filmed starring Michael Caine as Harry Palmer [the character is un-named in the novels]. Deighton's fourth novel Billion Dollar Brain (1966) became the third Harry Palmer film released in 1967, all three were produced by Harry Saltzman.

Hawkey proposed for the first time that ‘JAMES BOND’ should be elevated above the book title, and this be twice the size of the title and author's name. He originally intended that the typography be laid over a photograph of a well-muscled hairy chest. This proved too risqué and vaguely indecent, so it was decided to use a man's back on the final cover. The THUNDERBALL cover also broke new ground in that it had two .38 calibre bullet holes die-cut into Brian Duffy's cover photograph. Surrounding each bullet hole is a torn-paper effect, so it is not the man that has been shot, but the book itself - the two spent bullets are then seen on the opening page.

Ian Fleming saw the new design shortly after the meeting at the White Tower restaurant and on April 9, 1963 wrote a letter to Hawkey congratulating him on the new cover: “Thank you very much for the pulls of the really brilliant cover you have designed. I think it is quite splendid and I don't think the filthy little Pan sign spoils it too much”.

THUNDERBALL concept and final cover by Raymond Hawkey

With an initial print run of 350,000 copies (the largest of any James Bond paperback at that time), the PAN edition of THUNDERBALL was published in May 1963, along with CASINO ROYALE which had an initial print run of 100,000. Although Raymond Hawkey is only credited on the rear of the THUNDERBALL paperback, it is undeniably his designs which feature on the rest of the series. It is likely that PAN staff did the layouts for the rest of the covers which followed during the next four years. Raymond Hawkey later admitted that PAN Books were so pleased with the success of THUNDERBALL that the chairman sent his design fee twice, something that had never happened before nor since! THUNDERBALL sold a staggering 808,000 copies in its first six months on sale, and was reprinted eleven more times over the next two years before the Raymond Hawkey cover was superseded by the film tie-in paperback. In total PAN Books printed almost 1.7-million copies of THUNDERBALL with the Raymond Hawkey cover, making it by far the most popular title of this series.

CASINO ROYALE cover designed by Raymond Hawkey

In July 1963 LIVE AND LET DIE was reissued with the Hawkey cover but had an initial print-run of just 15,000. Although this was the 11th printing, paperback sales of this title had only reached around 800,000. The following month saw GOLDFINGER, FOR YOUR EYES ONLY, MOONRAKER and DIAMONDS ARE FOREVER issued with new covers, each limited to an initial print-run of 120,000. However, sales were on the increase and no doubt boosted by the release of the second film From Russia With Love in October 1963. By the end of the year sales of the James Bond novels in paperback had reached a staggering 7.3-million copies; with 4.5-million sales in 1963 alone! The film tie-in version of DR. NO was still available as X237, and the film tie-in version of FROM RUSSIA, WITH LOVE (X236), with its glossy laminated wrap-around cover, also sold in huge quantities in 1963/64. The FROM RUSSIA, WITH LOVE film tie-in edition also featured a die-cut front cover with holes punched out to represent the sprockets of the 35mm film stock.

LIVE AND LET DIE, GOLDFINGER & FOR YOUR EYES ONLY covers desgined by Raymond Hawkey

By early 1964 CASINO ROYALE had become the first James Bond novel to sell over one-million copies in paperback, and Ian Fleming was finally receiving the recognition and financial reward he had longed for. In May 1964 PAN Books invited the author to a ceremony to receive the ‘Golden PAN award’ but Fleming was too ill to attend. Fleming's success was short-lived and his health had taken a downward turn following the THUNDERBALL trial which took place in late November 1963. Kevin McClory had successfully sued Fleming after the author published his eighth James Bond novel without acknowledgement that it was based on a screenplay co-written with McClory and screenwriter Jack Whittingham. Starting with the 9th printing in 1964 subsequent editions of the paperback carried the additional credit “This story is based on a Screen Treatment by K. McClory, J. Whittingham, and the author”.

DR. NO was reissued once again in May 1964 with a Raymond Hawkey designed cover and a print-run of 150,000; FROM RUSSIA, WITH LOVE followed in July with the 18th edition and a print-run of 200,000 copies. GOLDFINGER was also reissued with a new cover from the 12th edition to coincide with the release of the third film in the series in September of that year. The release of the wrap-around film tie-in cover meant that there were now two editions of GOLDFINGER in circulation, and by the end of the year this title alone had sold 964,000 copies.

Molly Peters & Adolfo Celi reading the PAN Paperback of DIAMONDS ARE FOREVER

DIAMONDS ARE FOREVER wins the golden PAN award 1964

ABOVE: In May 1964 DIAMONDS ARE FOREVER became one of the six James Bond novels in PAN paperback to sell over one-million copies in the UK. The ‘Golden Pan Award’ (right) was later presented to Ian Fleming's family following his death in August 1964. Six further James Bond novels also achieved one-million sales by the end of 1967. At this time only three other novels had ever sold in excess of one-million copies in paperback in the UK. The Dam Busters (1954) by Paul Brickhill and Saturday Night and Sunday Morning (1960) by Alan Sillitoe were published by PAN Books both reaching the one-million milestone in 1956 and 1964 respectively. Lady Chatterley's Lover (1928) also sold in excess of three-million copies after the novel was the subject of a watershed obscenity trial brought against publisher Penguin Books in 1960. Penguin won the case and the full unexpurgated paperback edition of D. H. Lawrence's final novel was then available for the first time in the United Kingdom.
BELOW: MOONRAKER PAN Paperback cover being printed at Hazell, Watson and Viney Limited in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, in 1963. MOONRAKER later became the second Ian Fleming title sell over one-million copies, after it was reissued with the Raymond Hawkey designed cover in August 1963.

Golden PAN award advert | MOONRAKER coming off the press

MOONRAKER, DR. NO & FROM RUSSIA, WITH LOVE covers designed by Raymond Hawkey

The Property of a Lady?
Whilst some of the Raymond Hawkey series covers were graphic representations others were photographs, and the FROM RUSSIA, WITH LOVE cover features one of the actual Russian Crown Jewels designed by Carl Fabergé. The Coronation Egg was provided by renowned jeweller and antique dealers Messrs Wartski, who would be mentioned in Ian Fleming's novella THE PROPERTY OF A LADY, originally published by the auction house Sotheby's in their 1962/63 yearbook The Ivory Hammer: The Year at Sotheby's, 219th Season 1962-1963, and later as part of the OCTOPUSSY anthology paperback published by PAN in July 1967. Kenneth Snowman (1919–2002), who is mentioned in THE PROPERTY OF A LADY, was actually the great-grandson of Morris Wartski, who founded the firm in North Wales in 1865. Kenneth's father Emanuel Snowman (Morris Wartski’s son-in-law) was among the first to negotiate with the government of the Soviet Union in the 1920s, purchasing treasures that had been confiscated after the 1917 revolution, and among these were many of Carl Fabergé's most famous pieces. Kenneth Snowman would also write the definitive book on the subject The Art of Carl Fabergé in 1953. One of Fabergé's Coronation Eggs also plays an important part in the 1983 film version of Octopussy, which used THE PROPERTY OF A LADY as a brief vignette in the film.

Roger Moore as James Bond in Octopussy (1983)

1964 PAN Paperbacks advert

The paperback edition of ON HER MAJESTY'S SECRET SERVICE was published by PAN Books in September of 1964, 18-months after its hardback edition from Jonathan Cape. With an initial print-run of 100,000 copies, the first three printings of the paperback were for export only, and it was not until the 4th printing on May 7, 1965 that the novel was widely available in the UK. Collectors should note that the first three printings had the title in blue, whereas from the 4th printing it was green. A variant version with the title in a reddish-brown colour is also known to exist. An example can be seen in the promotional TV film Welcome To Japan Mr. Bond (1967) [pictured at the bottom of the page]. Once available in the UK the paperback edition sold in huge numbers and was reprinted five times with the Raymond Hawkey cover. The fourth printing was the highest ever in the history of British paperback publishing, with a staggering one-million copies produced.

ON HER MAJESTY'S SECRET SERVICE cover designed by Raymond Hawkey

It should also be noted that the original export editions of ON HER MAJESTY'S SECRET SERVICE had a photograph of Ian Fleming by Cecil Beaton (pictured further up the page on the CASINO ROYALE paperback), which was replaced with the Horst Tappe portrait on the later printings. By the end of 1965 ON HER MAJESTY'S SECRET SERVICE had sold almost two-million copies; the highest annual total for any title, and over twice as many as its nearest rival THUNDERBALL. Overall sales of PAN James Bond paperbacks also peaked in 1965 and by the end of the year they had sold over six-and-a-half million copies in the UK alone!

YOU ONLY LIVE TWICE PAN UK printing 1966

YOU ONLY LIVE TWICE was first published in paperback by PAN in July 1965, but once again this edition was for export only and the cover has no price printed. 250,000 copies of this edition of the paperback were produced and the cover was laminated making it stand out from the rest of the series. The 2nd and 3rd printings reverted to the paler card cover and were the ones sold in the UK when the paperback was published on May 6, 1966. Although a later film tie-in edition was printed in 1967, some copies with the Hawkey cover can be found with a film tie-in wraparound jacket. This was probably created to use up old stock before the true film tie-in was printed, and are extremely hard to find.

YOU ONLY LIVE TWICE PAN banner

The paperback edition of Ian Fleming's final novel THE MAN WITH THE GOLDEN GUN was first published by PAN in July 1966 with an initial print-run of 322,000 copies. This was the second-biggest selling title that year behind YOU ONLY LIVE TWICE, and had sold 273,000 copies by the end of 1966. However, the first edition of paperback edition of THE MAN WITH THE GOLDEN GUN had been exported to Commonwealth countries, and not available in the UK until May 1967. THE MAN WITH THE GOLDEN GUN was reprinted four more times in 1967 with sales of 485,000, making it the second most popular of the James Bond novels sold by PAN that year, only beaten by THE SPY WHO LOVED ME which was making its UK paperback debut.

THE MAN WITH THE GOLDEN GUN cover designed by Raymond Hawkey

Published in hardback by Jonathan Cape in May 1965, The James Bond Dossier then appeared as a PAN paperback in 1966 with a cover featuring the Raymond Hawkey designs seen on four of Ian Fleming's PAN paperbacks, including the recently published THE MAN WITH THE GOLDEN GUN; the rubber stamp used on FOR YOUR EYES ONLY and Scaramanga's BOAC ticket and Golden Gun are the original items photographed for those paperbacks, not simple reproductions of the original covers. Also appearing in paperback in 1966 was The Book of Bond (Or Every Man His Own 007) [once more written by Kingsley Amis] which had been published in hardback in May 1965 by Jonathan Cape, with a clever reversible dust-jacket once again devised by Raymond Hawkey. For the paperback edition Hawkey used a generic still-life montage of several items featured in Fleming's James Bond novels including Bond's gold-banded Morland's cigarettes and Walther PPK. A jar of Fortnum & Mason caviar and Dunlop Number 4 Golf Ball are not mentioned specifically in the novels, but no doubt the still-life montage idea formed the genesis for the series of covers which followed in the 1970s, although these were more meticulously researched to include the exact items Fleming describes in the relevant novels. Raymond Hawkey's concept artwork (displayed for the first time at the 2008 ‘Bond Bound’ exhibition at The Fleming Collection) showed the ideas taking shape. It's apparent that both non-fiction books were designed to fit in with the current series of Ian Fleming James Bond PAN paperbacks then in circulation throughout the UK and the Commonwealth.

The James Bond Dossier/The Book of Bond PAN paperback covers and Raymond Hawkey concept artwork.

Following the disappointing critical reception of Ian Fleming's 1962 novel THE SPY WHO LOVED ME, the author requested that there were no reprints or paperback editions of the book. Although a paperback edition was published in the United States by the New American Library under their Signet imprint, it was not until three years after Ian Fleming's death that his estate finally relented and allowed PAN to issue a paperback for the British market, and this was first published in May 1967. The initial print-run of 450,000 copies sold out very quickly and a second printing appeared in 1968. Later print-runs were very small and it is the first printing which is still very easy to obtain. The initial interest in the paperback didn't sustain, and sales in future years declined to an all-time low in 1976 when the remaining 500 copies were sold. THE SPY WHO LOVED ME sold 807,500 copies in total eventually going out-of-print in 1977. Although it was reprinted as part of the ‘white-model’ and ‘still-life’ series it remains the only Ian Fleming novel published in paperback by PAN Books which didn't sell over a million copies during its 10 years in circulation. When it came time for a film tie-in Fleming's story was ignored and Christopher Wood's JAMES BOND, THE SPY WHO LOVED ME that was published in its place in paperback by Triad/Panther to support the 1977 Roger Moore film version.

THE SPY WHO LOVED ME cover designed by Raymond Hawkey

Ian Fleming's second collection of short stories was finally published in paperback by PAN Books in July 1967 with the title OCTOPUSSY. The paperback also included THE LIVING DAYLIGHTS and added THE PROPERTY OF A LADY, which was the first time this short story had been widely available in the UK following its original appearance in the post-auction catalogue The Ivory Hammer: The Year at Sotheby’s in 1962. The initial print run of just 60,000 copies sold out in 1967, and three more printings followed in 1968. Overall sales dropped in the following years, although OCTOPUSSY was the highest selling James Bond paperback title that year with a respectable 362,000 copies, but this fell to only 34,000 the following year. By the end of 1977 when PAN lost the paperback publishing rights, OCTOPUSSY had sold 613,000 copies making it the least successful of all of PAN's Bond titles. The Jonathan Cape hardback edition (under the title OCTOPUSSY AND THE LIVING DAYLIGHTS) had been published in June 1966 and never sold out its print-run of 50,000 copies, which were eventually re-priced to sell off the remaining stock in the 1970s. This is therefore the only Ian Fleming title in hardback which exists solely in the first edition. Unscrupulous sellers in more recent years have inflated the price, pointing out the book is a ‘first edition’, when there was never a second.

Also published by PAN Books in 1967 was John Pearson's ground-breaking biography The Life of Ian Fleming, which was cross-promoted by PAN Books on posters featuring the clever dust-jacket art designed by Jan Pienkowski (1936-2022) that also appeared on the 1966 Jonathan Cape hardback edition. PAN Books were also keen to point out that Ian Fleming's James Bond novels had now sold 24-million copies in paperback.

OCTOPUSSY cover designed by Raymond Hawkey

PAN Books OCTOPUSSY poster/THE LIFE OF IAN FLEMING paperback

Although this is the first and only series of PAN paperbacks with a uniform set of covers, the titles were not released in the same order as Ian Fleming's novels were originally published, so it was not until July 1967 when a complete set was finally available. Copies in good condition are still relatively easy to obtain on the second-hand market. As the Raymond Hawkey series sold in such huge numbers, and their circulation coincided with the release of the Sean Connery films, the covers became ubiquitous and were the most widely-read editions of any of the James Bond novels in paperback.

PAN THUNDERBALL paperback rear cover Raymond Hawkey (1930-2010)

Utilising two modern sans-serif fonts (Helvetica and News Gothic) and a simple effective graphic image, Raymond Hawkey's redesign played an important part in transforming the sales of the James Bond novels in the early 1960s. Above all it was Raymond Hawkey's idea of putting ‘JAMES BOND’ above the title and author on the front cover that revolutionised the paperback market in the UK, and the concept was copied by other publishers in subsequent years. PAN issued most of the Bond novels again from 1969 with new photographic covers, but retained Hawkey's effective typography as the key eye-catching device at the bookstand.

In 1969 Raymond Hawkey designed the title sequence for Richard Attenborough's Oh! What A Lovely War, which was co-produced and written by an uncredited Len Deighton, and THUNDERBALL cover photographer Brian Duffy. In later life Raymond Hawkey became a well-respected author in his own right and also devised the cover artwork for his 1974 debut novel Wild Card, co-authored with Roger Bingham and published in hardback by Jonathan Cape. The dust jacket of Wild Card defied convention once again by just featuring a large red exclamation mark, with no mention of the author or title! Encouraged by his friend Len Deighton, Hawkey penned three more thrillers - Side-Effect (1979), it (1983) and End Stage (1988), also writing and co-designing a 3D pop-up book Evolution: The Story of the Origins of Humankind, published by Putnam in 1987. Raymond Hawkey died in 2010 aged 80.

Raymond Hawkey designed James Bond novels enter popular culture

ABOVE:  Selling millions of copies each year during the mid-1960s, the James Bond paperbacks with covers designed by Raymond Hawkey became ubiquitous as the most widely-read editions of any of the novels. The PAN paperback of ON HER MAJESTY'S SECRET SERVICE can be glimpsed in Welcome To Japan Mr. Bond (above left) - a 50-minute television film promoting  the release of the fifth James Bond film, You Only Live Twice (1967). The Raymond Hawkey designed PAN paperback of THUNDERBALL is seen in the 1965 Ford Motors promotional film A Child's Guide to Blowing Up a Motor Car being read (top right) by Denis Norden (1922-2018). The cover FROM RUSSIA, WITH LOVE appeared on the big screen (bottom centre) in The Spy With A Cold Nose (1966) being read by Lionel Jeffries (1926-2010), and the GOLDFINGER paperback (bottom right) even found its way into popular culture as late as 1971 in A Deadly Line in Digits, an episode of the ITV television series Jason King (1971-1972) starring Peter Wyngarde (1927-2018).

PART ONE: THE ORIGINAL FACE OF JAMES BOND

PART THREE: FILM TIE-IN COVERS


FACT FILES INDEX

 

FACT FILES - James Bond UK Paperbacks