007 MAGAZINE - The World's Foremost James Bond Resource!

2012 Interview


007 MAGAZINE Editor Graham Rye  

A Life In Bondage

007 MAGAZINE is the longest running James Bond magazine in the world, and one of the longest running independent film magazines on the market. As the EON film series that inspired the magazine’s original inception celebrates its 50th anniversary, LUKE G. WILLIAMS chats to the man who has edited the magazine for three decades – GRAHAM RYE – about his amazing career within publishing and the world of 007.

As a fanatical young James Bond fan in the 1980s, this writer would while away many an hour scouring newspapers and magazines for photos, articles or features about my favourite cinematic hero. In those pre-Internet days, information about upcoming Bond films was hard to come by, so I would have to paw my way through the latest issues of Film Review and Starburst magazines, carefully clipping out any Bond related items I discovered before lovingly ‘Pritt Sticking’ them into a scrapbook. During these thorough and often fruitless searches of the world’s print media, I would often idly daydream about how cool (how utterly amazingly cool!) it would be if there was a magazine devoted entirely to James Bond.

007 MAGAZINE #17

007 MAGAZINE #17

007 MAGAZINE ARCHIVE FILES On Her Majesty's Secret Service File #1

007 MAGAZINE ARCHIVE FILES On Her Majesty's Secret Service File #1

All About Bond - Terry O'Neill

All About Bond
Terry O'Neill (2012)

The James Bond Girls Graham Rye (1989)

The James Bond Girls Graham Rye (1989)

Dr. No (1962) Quad poster

Dr. No (1962) Quad poster

Sean Connery as James Bond in Goldfinger (1964)

Sean Connery as James Bond in Goldfinger (1964)

Editor & Director Peter Hunt (1925-2002)

Editor & Director
Peter Hunt (1925-2002)

Main Title Designer Maurice Binder (1925-1991)

Main Title Designer Maurice Binder

Composer John Barry (1933-2011)

Composer John Barry (1933-2011)

Production Designer Ken Adam

Production Designer
Ken Adam (1921-2016)

George Lazenby played James Bond in On Her Majesty's Secret Service (1969)

George Lazenby played 007 in On Her Majesty's Secret Service (1969)

Ken Adam's volcano set in You Only Live Twice (1967)

You Only Live Twice

Pinewood 1990 convention brochure

Pinewood 1990 convention brochure

Graham Rye & Andrew Pilkington - Pinewood Studios 1990

Graham Rye & Andrew Pilkington - Pinewood Studios 1990

Wing Commander Ken Wallis with 'Little Nellie' - Pinewood Studios 1990

Wing Commander Ken Wallis with 'Little Nellie' - Pinewood Studios 1990

Mollie Peters (Pat in Thunderball) - Pinewood Studios 1990

Mollie Peters (Pat in Thunderball) - Pinewood Studios 1990

Oddjob's bowler hat sells for £62,000 in 1998

Oddjob's bowler hat sells for £62,000 in 1998

Moonbuggy featured in Diamonds Are Forever (1971)

Moon Buggy featured in Diamonds Are Forever (1971)

On Her Majesty's Secret Service (1969) US 1-sheet poster

On Her Majesty's Secret Service (1969)
US 1-sheet poster

Oscar-winner Norman Wanstall with Ursula Andress  at AUTOGRAPHICA 2005

Oscar-winner Norman Wanstall with Ursula Andress  at AUTOGRAPHICA 2005

Documentary filmmaker John Cork

Documentary filmmaker John Cork

That’s why, one afternoon in 1988, when I first discovered a copy of 007 MAGAZINE in the Forest Hill branch of W.H. Smith in South London, it was a truly magical moment. While my mum was putting the finishing touches to the weekly family food shop in Sainsbury’s across the road, I spotted 007 MAGAZINE hidden among the detritus of that month’s film and music magazines. I had to have it, even though its £2.50 cover price wiped out my pocket money for the week in one fell swoop.

I’ve remained a loyal reader of 007 MAGAZINE ever since, and have lost count of the number of times an issue has taken my breath away with a stunning pictorial of never-before-seen stills, or a thought-provokingly original article, interview or retrospective. Since 1982, the man at the helm of the magazine has been Graham Rye, a multi-talented Southall-born designer, photographer and writer. In the 30 years since Rye assumed the editorial reins of 007 MAGAZINE, he has self-published 55 issues, including 16 editions of its new ‘sister’ publication, 007 MAGAZINE ARCHIVE FILES. In the face of changing trends in publishing and distribution that have made it virtually impossible for an independently produced magazine to get on the shelves of W.H. Smith, like 007 MAGAZINE did back in the 1980s, there is something incredibly inspiring about Rye’s dogged perseverance to continue producing a high-quality magazine that 007 fans worldwide can enjoy.

Although 007 MAGAZINE retails in specialist film memorabilia stores internationally, its main point of sale is now online, via its website www.007magazine.com. Nevertheless, unlike many other ‘fan’ magazines, the high standards and professionalism of his publication have never been compromised, as Rye himself explains as we sit over a cup of tea (it was too early for a vodka martini!) one afternoon recently at his home in Kent to discuss his career. “007 MAGAZINE has always been about showing people things they haven’t seen before and won’t see anywhere else – that’s the abiding ethos that has always remained,” he tells me with pride. “I like to use exclusive articles and exclusive interviews that I know are going to be accompanied by exclusive photographs – nine tenths of the time the images I use are exclusive because nobody else has them.”

Certainly, Rye’s photographic archive of Bond material, the 007 MAGAZINE ARCHIVE, which he generously spent several hours showing me, is unmatched anywhere in the world in its breadth, depth and sheer volume of rare images, particularly from the earlier Bond films. When famed photographer Terry O’Neill was recently working on his book, All About Bond - a compilation of his best work on a variety of Bond films - Rye found material in his archives that O’Neill had thought lost for years, and no other picture agency had been able to source. EON Productions, the producers of the Bond films, are the one organisation you would expect to be able to match Rye’s photographic resources – but as Rye points out, their archive was for years in a state of disarray.“ “Unfortunately they didn’t look after their gold-mine of images. It seems unbelievable now but in the 1960s original transparencies would be sent out to publications and they didn’t duplicate them. In fact, I don’t think they started duplicating them until probably as late as 1977, going by what I hold in my archive, because most of the images I have from those first films are originals, not duplicates. When I wrote a book on the James Bond girls [in 1989 in co-operation with EON] I went into EON’s archive, which at that time was in a small room at Pinewood Studios where all their stills and transparencies were kept in old cardboard biscuit boxes. They were all over the place, everything was misfiled and as I went through these pictures, refiling them in the process, that’s when I realised how few images EON actually had left at that time from any of the films from Dr. No (1962) all the way through to For Your Eyes Only (1981). There was hardly anything at all. God knows where they all went! It’s crazy really!”

Despite periodic spells of cooperation, Rye once likened his relationship with EON as a marriage in which “irreconcilable differences” had caused a breakdown in the relationship leading to divorce. Rye fiercely guards 007 MAGAZINE’s editorial independence, refusing to tow any ‘party line’ when it comes to analysis of EON’s output, past or present. Nevertheless, despite his reputation as something of a loose cannon, Rye retains a childlike enthusiasm for the world of James Bond, despite 2012 being the 50th anniversary of his first encounter with Ian Fleming’s ‘gentleman spy’.

Born in 1951, Rye’s interest in Bond was first ignited when his father took him to a showing of Dr. No at the local cinema in 1962 when he was 11. “My Dad turned to me one day and said: ‘we’re going to the cinema tomorrow evening to see a film I think you’re going to enjoy.’”, Rye recalls. “I hadn’t a clue what Dr. No was before I saw it. I didn’t know anything about it! Anyway, we went… and I sat there in the cinema and was completely blown away. I’d never seen anything like it in the cinema or on television or anywhere else before. It was a bit scary in that dark cinema as an eleven-year-old… the curtains opened and suddenly those white dots came across the screen; then there were these weird high-pitched electronic sounds and I thought: what on earth is this all about? And then, the screen opened out and I was looking down a gun barrel… incredible! I was totally mesmerised by the whole thing.”

One of Rye’s central theses, which he returns to repeatedly throughout our conversation, is that Dr. No changed the fabric and vocabulary of modern cinema. “There’s so much interwoven into that first film,” he points out, passionately and with conviction. “It was a seminal experience and it has had a resonance with me for the rest of my life. Connery was such an incredible presence on screen, there had been nobody like him before. That’s why I always divide cinema into two eras - BC and AC - Before Connery and After Connery! The film world was so different before him, with all those ‘anyone for tennis’ ‘jolly hockey sticks’ sort of English actors, who disappeared off the scene after Connery came along. Certainly by the time of Goldfinger in 1964, a lot of those ‘old school’ English actors you wouldn’t see in lead roles any longer.”

Warming to this theme, Rye adds: “In fact, I think the Bond movies changed cinema totally. Before Dr. No there wasn’t anything so hard-hitting. There wasn’t anything like that sort of level of violence in a movie before Dr. No was released. I can remember the sharp intake of breath in the audience when Bond shot Professor Dent – the idea that the hero would cold bloodedly shoot somebody was unheard of. Peter Hunt’s editing was also vital; action films and thrillers would not have progressed the way they did had it not been for his work on Dr. No. The Bond movies created the whole 1960s ‘spy craze’, with films like Our Man Flint and Matt Helm among them, but in a wider technical sense the Bond movies influenced people to make films in a different way. Quick-cut editing improved films and made them more dynamic. Unfortunately, some editors now, who will remain nameless, have gone too far. They think that you can delete some of the building blocks of telling a story and it will still make sense, but it doesn’t! A good learning curve for anyone who is going to edit a film and make the story easily understandable is to look at a Bond film made back in the 1960s and analyse why they still work so well today.”

Rye also pinpoints other key creative forces that laid the foundations for the 50-year long Bond series. “It’s essential to credit John Barry’s music, Ken Adam’s sets and Maurice Binder’s fantastic graphic titles that established the series initial impact, and Robert Brownjohn’s iconic credit title creations for From Russia With Love and Goldfinger… all these elements melded together into a fantastic cocktail that was totally seductive to the subconscious. Once you’ve taken those images on board they stay in your mind and rattle around in there forever. The Bond films from 1962 to 1969 weren’t just huge, successful pieces of popular entertainment – they were works of art. They had an aesthetic quality about them that the later films, certainly in the Roger Moore era, never had. And none of the films that followed later on, with the possible exception of parts of 2006’s Casino Royale, measured up to those Sixties Bonds.”

Rye also mounts a passionate defence of Bond’s superiority to other major film franchises. “As great and wonderful as people think the Star Wars series are and Harry Potter films are and so on, I don’t think there are any set-pieces in any of those films that have that ability, that resonance to burn themselves into your mind like the Bond films did. Again, that’s a consequence of the wonderful cocktail of talent that was pumped into the visual imagery – the light that burnt through the celluloid onto the screen seared itself directly into your brain; Ken Adam’s sets, Barry’s music, Connery’s ability to move as well as he did in the action scenes… everything just comes together as a perfect fit; a perfect dovetail joint.”

Pausing, Rye, no great admirer of most of EON’s post-1960s output, adds with a rueful chuckle: “I don’t understand, if you have a blueprint that you can look back on and study in detail, why it has been so difficult ever since to replicate that blueprint to a better and finer degree. The makers of the recent Bond films have not been taking enough notice of that original blueprint!”

On a personal level, Rye also credits the Bond movies with expanding his mind and world-view. “As a schoolboy I was never very academic but when I read Ian Fleming’s books they stretched my mind; there were things in those books I didn’t understand on first reading but I wanted to understand them so I read them again and again, I looked things up… When I read about various products that Fleming introduced in his books, whether it was a French-named soap, or a fancy foodstuff or handmade cigarettes or whatever, I wanted to find them all! My ability to understand the world was enlarged by Bond. The Bond films and books helped me realise there was so much more out there in the world one could reach for than anyone had ever shown me or led me to believe when I was at school.”

Certainly, Rye possesses the maverick spirit and determination that characterise many self-taught and independent spirits, having left school at 16 with a sole ‘O’ Level in Art (and “the headmaster’s boot print still fresh on my backside”). However, undaunted by a lack of academic qualifications, Rye managed to carve out a highly successful career for himself in advertising, progressing from messenger boy to studio manager of a London advertising art studio, before also diversifying into freelance graphic design and photography.

Rye’s mania for all things Bond led him to become involved with The James Bond British Fan Club, established in 1979 by a Bond fan and QPR supporter who, in 1983, offered Rye the opportunity to take over the club, its publication ‘007’ and its zero balance bank account. Rye brought a new ethos of professionalism to the design and editorial quality and re-christened the publication 007 MAGAZINE – a truly incredible achievement given the limited budgets he has worked with over the years. Similarly impressive, is the number of Bond celebrities who have been interviewed in the pages of 007 MAGAZINE – from 007 actors George Lazenby, Roger Moore, Timothy Dalton, Pierce Brosnan and Daniel Craig to directors Lewis Gilbert, John Glen and Michael Apted, as well as writers Kingsley Amis, John Pearson and John Gardner and many more besides.

When asked to assess Rye’s qualities, his former personal assistant Jamie Beerman spoke glowingly of his former boss’s commitment to the world of 007, citing his “dedication, long hours, very long hours and obscenely late nights!” Beerman also adds, tongue only slightly in cheek, that Rye “has a second-to-none knowledge of his subject matter. Who was the milkman at Pinewood when Sean Connery was filming the volcano sequence on You Only Live Twice? Graham can tell you! Well, that’s a bit of an exaggeration, but you get the picture. There isn’t much, if anything, he doesn’t know about Bond!”

Rye's independent spirit is also a key ingredient in what makes 007 MAGAZINE so unique, as John Cork, the respected Bond scholar and documentary filmmaker who produced the acclaimed documentaries for MGM's DVD release of the Bond series, is keen to emphasise. “Graham has a unique position in the world of Bond fandom,” Cork points out. “Most fan-driven publications work hard to curry favour with their subject. It's the nature of the beast. Graham has no patience for that. He's totally independent, and that makes 007 MAGAZINE different. Each issue is a love-letter to the world of Bond. Each issue is created out of passion – and I don't believe Graham does anything about which he's not passionate. But most importantly, each issue makes no apologies. If he does not love something, he will let the reader know.”

As well as overseeing the transformation of ‘007’ from a resolutely amateur fan rag to the Rolls-Royce-quality 007 MAGAZINE, with production and design values that put many mainstream publications to shame, Rye, during his tenure as President of The James Bond 007 International Fan Club & Archive, also transformed 007 ‘fan’ culture with a series of ground-breaking events which resurrected and revitalised the public face of several 007 series’ luminaries, as well as rescuing many props from the Bond series from oblivion. In 1990 the 007 convention he organised at Pinewood Studios featured the largest collection of props from the Bond films that had ever been displayed, most of which had not been seen in public before and probably wouldn’t have ever been seen afterwards at several ‘official’ exhibits had Rye not retrieved them from EON’s then chaotic, dusty and pigeon-soiled ‘archive’.

“Oh my God, it nearly killed me,” he recalls with a deliberately exaggerated groan when describing the lead-up to the convention. “In the three days before the weekend event, I had three hours sleep in those three days! By the time I arrived at the studios on the Saturday morning, I was a walking zombie. But the fact I’d been able to persuade Pinewood Studios to agree, for the first time ever, to let somebody outside the film industry organise an event there for members of the public and also hire a soundstage was something special in itself I think.” “Thankfully, I also persuaded EON Productions to say: “Yes, you can use anything you can find in any of the storage areas we have at Pinewood.” They had little idea of what they had in there… It was as if somebody had given me the key to Fort Knox! I hired a couple of labourers to help me move all the stuff and I had to get a forklift truck and pay for all that. Therefore, at my expense, we moved all those props, cleaned them and put them on display on Pinewood’s ‘B’ Stage. So suddenly for the first time, EON Productions had a complete inventory of everything they had at Pinewood and it had all been cleaned and filed away correctly at my expense – wasn’t that good of me!”, he says with a Cheshire Cat smile!

Andrew Pilkington, who has been involved in 007 MAGAZINE in a variety of important roles since its inception in the late 1970s, and was Rye’s trusted right-hand man for 20 years, recalls hunting through the props store with him. “My favourite memory of Graham is when we rummaged around all the prop stores and rooms all over Pinewood in preparation for that first big convention. We found all these great props - the SFX attaché case used in From Russia With Love, ninja throwing stars from You Only Live Twice, gin rummy score sheets from Goldfinger. Graham was like a kid in a sweetshop!”

Rye pinpoints the first day of the convention, when club members viewed the props exhibit for the first time, as perhaps the defining moment of his career in ‘Bondage’. “When the electric door on the soundstage moved up and opened, very slowly, and the 250 fan club members on the other side saw this Aladdin’s cave of material, it was incredible. Everyone gasped! The awe and wonderment on those people’s faces - kids, adults, everyone – you couldn’t put a value on it quite frankly. That was quite something. The fact that we got various people who were connected with the films to come along as well was great… but that display on ‘B’ stage was something really special… but Christ, the work that was involved, it was exhausting. Some of the items I found in those storerooms was unbelievable, out of this world, and after sorting through it I was black with dirt, literally, from head to toe, like a coalminer!”

Pilkington also recalls the props exhibit with enthusiastic affection. “We had allotted two hours for everyone to look around, but we had to practically drag people away to move them on to the next part of the event, even though most had a weekend ticket and could come back and view it all again the next day!”

Over the years, Rye has also been responsible for preserving and rescuing several iconic props from the Bond series. Oddjob's steel-rimmed bowler hat from Goldfinger, which was part of Rye's archive for over 10 years, was eventually sold at auction at CHRISTIE'S for £62,000 in 1998 to EON Productions (the highest price ever reached for a Bond series prop). Meanwhile the Moon Buggy vehicle, which featured in Diamonds Are Forever, was discovered in an abject state by Rye, who then painstakingly supervised its restoration, prior to its 10-year display in Planet Hollywood, Las Vegas.

Another iconic event organised by Rye was a special On Her Majesty’s Secret Service themed Christmas lunch, which reunited cast members George Lazenby, Lois Maxwell and Desmond Llewelyn for the first time since the film’s release in 1969, and gave Bond fans their first chance to meet Lazenby at an internationally attended event. The audience reception afforded the second cinematic 007 was rapturous.

“I was standing behind the screen with George, as the finale of the film played out,” Andrew Pilkington recalls. “George was going to walk around the side of the screen as Graham introduced him, and I told George that the audience was going to go mental once he was announced, so to be prepared. At that stage, George had not attended any fan events of this kind and he shrugged it off a little, but when Graham announced him the audience went wild, and he couldn’t get a word in until their five-minute standing ovation abated. He was gobsmacked and genuinely moved by the warm reception he received.”

It is worth noting that Rye’s championing of Lazenby and OHMSS over the years, including devoting several issues of 007 MAGAZINE to the film, has been one of the key forces in rehabilitating what was once seen as the ‘black sheep’ of the Bond series to its rightful reputation as one of the artistic highlights of the series.

It is also hard to dispute Pilkington’s assertion that Graham Rye was a, “trailblazer as far as Bond conventions were concerned; the first to organise conventions at Pinewood Studios and those events have earned a place in Bond history.” Rye expands on this theme, when asked to consider how the ‘Bond fan industry’ has changed over the last couple of decades. “I think it’s fair to say that I started the ball rolling with Bond events and autograph signings. These things had never been done before in a professionally organised fashion. In those days guests appeared at my events for expenses only because they knew they were going to be treated with respect and were going to be well looked after. Quite naturally, they also enjoyed the attention. Some of those people we brought out of the shadows … I mean some of them hadn’t been heard of or seen for years, and in a small way it resurrected their careers on the public circuit.”

However, the culture of autograph shows and conventions has been changed forever in recent years, as Rye explains: “I did just about all that could be done with that format and retired from producing events in 1999. From about the early 2000s it started to become more of a commercial business for others who moved into the Bond event vacuum left by my withdrawal, and who used and adapted my original ideas. People signed autographs but they signed them for a fee, which was fair enough. I’ve certainly never had a problem with people earning money from their signatures, but at that time, between 1990 and 1999, everyone was happy to take part on the basis they’d be treated to a great day out - and they were, and were very well looked after.”

As he pauses to reflect on a professional career in Bondage that is now into its fourth decade, Rye admits that it hasn’t always been easy carrying the burden of an independent magazine: “It’s given me a huge amount of pleasure, as well as a huge amount of frustration and disappointment. I’ve met some wonderful, wonderful people, some very pleasant and interesting people. I’ve met some people I wish I hadn’t met, but I won’t dwell on them. My involvement with James Bond has expanded my horizons. I’ve travelled and been to many places I wouldn’t otherwise have visited.”

The change in Fan and Internet culture has also necessitated a change in Rye's approach, a challenge that, John Cork argues, the magazine has met: “It used to be that magazines like ‘007’ had to spend much of their time just chasing down the news and presenting it to the readers. That world is gone. We get Facebook posts and Tweets with seemingly every minor update from the world of Bond. 007 MAGAZINE has had to change to survive, and it has risen to that challenge. I always look forward to what will be in the next issue, because I know it will be filled with great images and challenging content.”

Amen to that; Graham Rye and 007 MAGAZINE have certainly expanded the horizons of Bond fans worldwide over the past 30-odd years – giving them insights, information, and experiences centred on their cinematic hero that otherwise would have been denied them – that is Graham Rye’s legacy… and long may it continue!

Rye on Bond

During his ‘life in Bondage’, Graham Rye has met and interviewed a huge range of Bond personalities from both in front and behind the camera. Here are his memories of some of the most significant.

Terence Young (director of three of the first four Bond movies)

On Terence Young (director of three of the first four Bond movies):
Terence was everything that everyone says about him! He was very much a James Bond type, he was a wonderful raconteur, he loved to tell stories, and sometimes some of them were very tall stories! I think he liked to play fast and loose, not so much with the truth, shall we say, but with the facts! But he was a very kind and very nice man. He was always spending money on his friends and I remember I spent a week of lunches with him at his expense at Pinewood and I don’t think I ever ate a fork of hot food that whole week; I just couldn’t concentrate – because you just had to listen to Terence and those wonderful stories! But what pleased me more than anything was that his daughter, Juliet Nissen, when I spoke to her shortly after her father’s death, she said that Terence always spoke very fondly of the evening I arranged a 25th anniversary screening of Thunderball at the National Film Theatre that he attended as guest of honour. That pleased me that I’d managed to do something that showed people how important his contribution to the Bond films was, because at that stage nobody else in the business, not even EON, nobody seemed to care.

Desmond ‘Q’ Llewellyn

On Desmond ‘Q’ Llewellyn:
Desmond was lovely. So personable with everybody, he could talk to anybody of any age across all barriers. The wonderful thing was when you saw the look on a child’s face when they saw him, they’d exclaim: “It’s Q!” and their face would beam! They couldn’t believe that this man they’d seen with all those incredible gadgets, that he was there, in the flesh, at conventions and various other events. Desmond always supported all the events I ran and helped me as much as he could. I obviously tried to repay him as much as I could by finding him after-dinner speaking because if someone went through his agent, she’d bump the price up to a level that he’d never get that work; so I’d get it done through the back-door so to speak, much to her annoyance – but for a friend, anything!

Peter Hunt (editor of the early Bonds and director of ‘On Her Majesty’s Secret Service’)

On Peter Hunt (editor of the early Bonds and director of ‘On Her Majesty’s Secret Service’):
Peter was very special; I used to chat with him every few months on the phone when he was living in Los Angeles. He was always very pleasant and very helpful. He was openly thankful we took the interest we did in the magazines that covered his work, particularly On Her Majesty’s Secret Service. It just shows you, once again, what these people from the ‘old school’ were like. Peter travelled down from London on the train one day to come and see me and be interviewed at my offices in Woking. I mean: Peter Hunt came down to see me! It was fantastic, and a great honour!

Rye on Bond - the best!

Best Bond: Sean Connery (very closely followed by Daniel Craig)

Best Bond film: From Russia With Love (but OHMSS and 2006’s Casino Royale come close to a tie!)

Best Bond novel: ON HER MAJESTY’S SECRET SERVICE (but I still love YOU ONLY LIVE TWICE – the ending of this story in Fleming’s novel is as heart-wrenching for me as its predecessor!).

Worst Bond film: Die Another Day.

Top three Bond moments: Watching Dr. No for the first time with my Dad in 1962; walking on Ken Adam’s volcano set for You Only Live Twice at Pinewood Studios; being taken to my first West End screening of a Bond film at the ODEON Leicester Square by my Dad - You Only Live Twice in 1967.

Three words that to you sum up Bond: Cool! Classy! Unbeatable!

Best issue of 007 MAGAZINE: Whichever issue our readers enjoyed most!

Best memory of working in the world of Bond: The reaction of the fans when the electric door first opened up on the ‘B’ Stage props exhibition I’d mounted at Pinewood Studios for the 1990 James Bond 007 convention I produced there (and the standing ovation given George Lazenby in 1994).